Unit 6: Antebellum America Mac's History

Posted By admin On 28/12/21

The pre–Civil War years (1820–1860,or the “antebellum years”) were among the most chaoticin American history—a time of significant changes that took placeas the United States came of age. During these years, the nationwas transformed from an underdeveloped nation of farmers and frontiersmen intoan urbanized economic powerhouse. As the industrialized North andthe agricultural South grew further apart, five major trends dominatedAmerican economic, social, and political life during this period.

First, the Market Revolution—the shift from an agricultural economyto one based on wages and the exchange of goods and services—completelychanged the northern and western economy between 1820 and 1860.After Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin and perfected manufacturingwith interchangeable parts, the North experienced a manufacturingboom that continued well into the next century. Cyrus McCormick’smechanical mower-reaper also revolutionized grain production inthe West. Internal improvements such as the Erie Canal and the CumberlandRoad, combined with new modes of transportation such as the steamboatand railroad, allowed goods and crops to flow easily and cheaplybetween the agricultural West and manufacturing North. The growthof manufacturing also spawned the wage labor system.

Unit 6: Antebellum America Mac

Second, American society urbanized drastically duringthis era. The United States had been a land comprised almost entirelyof farmers, but around 1820,millions of people began to move to the cities. They, along withseveral million Irish and German immigrants, flooded northern citiesto find jobs in the new industrial economy. The advent of the wagelabor system played a large role in transforming the social fabricbecause it gave birth to America’s first middle class. Comprisedmostly of white-collar workers and skilled laborers, this growingmiddle class became the driving force behind a variety of reformmovements. Among these were movements to reduce consumption of alcohol,eliminate prostitution, improve prisons and insane asylums, improveeducation, and ban slavery. Religious revivalism, resulting fromthe Second Great Awakening, also had a large impact on Americanlife in all parts of the country.

Third, the major political struggles during the antebellumperiod focused on states’ rights. Southern states were dominatedby “states’ righters”—those who believed that the individual states shouldhave the final say in matters of interpreting the Constitution. Inspiredby the old Democratic-Republicans, John C. Calhoun argued in his“South Carolina Exposition and Protest” essay that the states hadthe right to nullify laws that they deemed unconstitutional becausethe states themselves had created the Constitution. Others, suchas President Andrew Jackson and Chief Justice John Marshall, believedthat the federal government had authority over the states. The debatecame to a head in the Nullification Crisis of 1832–1833,which nearly touched off a civil war.

Start studying APUSH Unit 6.1 - The Market Revolution. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Global History I. Unit 9.1: Historical Thinking; Unit 9.2: The First Civilizations; Unit 9.3: Classical Civilizations; Unit 9.4: Political Powers and Achievements; Unit 9.5: Social and Cultural Growth and Conflict; Unit 9.6: Ottoman and Ming Pre-1600; Unit 9.7: Transformation of Western Europe and Russia; Unit 9.8: Africa and the Americas Pre-1600.

Fourth, and closely tied to the states’ rights issue,was the debate over slavery—the most divisive issue the nation hadyet faced. Between 1820 and 1860,more and more northerners came to realize the horrors and injusticesof slavery, while southerners grew increasingly reliant upon itto support their cotton-based economy. Northerners did not necessarilywant social and political equality for blacks; they sought merelytheir emancipation. The debate in politics centered primarily onthe westward expansion of slavery, which southern elites saw asvital to the survival of their aristocratic social and economicorder. Others vehemently opposed the expansion of slavery outsidethe South. The debate was critical in the Missouri crisis, the annexationof Texas, and after the Mexican War.

Unit 6: Antebellum America Mac's History Of Events

Finally, the issue of westward expansion itself had aprofound effect on American politics and society during the antebellumyears. In the wake of the War of 1812,many nationalistic Americans believed that God intended for themto spread democracy and Protestantism across the entire continent.This idea of “manifest destiny” spurred over a million Americansto sell their homes in the East and set out on the treacherous Oregon,Mormon, Santa Fe, and California Trails. Policymakers capitalizedon public sentiment to acquire Florida and Oregon and declared waron Mexico in 1846 to seizeTexas, California, and everything in between.

Ultimately, these trends irreconcilably split the Northfrom the South. The Market Revolution, wage labor, improved transportation,social reforms, and growing middle class of the North all clashedwith the deep-seated, almost feudal social hierarchies of the South.Each successive debate on slavery and westward expansion drove theregions further apart until finally, in the 1850s,the North and the South were two wildly different places, culturally,socially, and economically.

The pre–Civil War years (1820–1860,or the “antebellum years”) were among the most chaoticin American history—a time of significant changes that took placeas the United States came of age. During these years, the nationwas transformed from an underdeveloped nation of farmers and frontiersmen intoan urbanized economic powerhouse. As the industrialized North andthe agricultural South grew further apart, five major trends dominatedAmerican economic, social, and political life during this period.

Unit 6: Antebellum America Mac's History Timeline

Unit 6: antebellum america mac

Unit 6: Antebellum America Mac's History Museum

Unit 6: antebellum america mac

First, the Market Revolution—the shift from an agricultural economyto one based on wages and the exchange of goods and services—completelychanged the northern and western economy between 1820 and 1860.After Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin and perfected manufacturingwith interchangeable parts, the North experienced a manufacturingboom that continued well into the next century. Cyrus McCormick’smechanical mower-reaper also revolutionized grain production inthe West. Internal improvements such as the Erie Canal and the CumberlandRoad, combined with new modes of transportation such as the steamboatand railroad, allowed goods and crops to flow easily and cheaplybetween the agricultural West and manufacturing North. The growthof manufacturing also spawned the wage labor system.

Second, American society urbanized drastically duringthis era. The United States had been a land comprised almost entirelyof farmers, but around 1820,millions of people began to move to the cities. They, along withseveral million Irish and German immigrants, flooded northern citiesto find jobs in the new industrial economy. The advent of the wagelabor system played a large role in transforming the social fabricbecause it gave birth to America’s first middle class. Comprisedmostly of white-collar workers and skilled laborers, this growingmiddle class became the driving force behind a variety of reformmovements. Among these were movements to reduce consumption of alcohol,eliminate prostitution, improve prisons and insane asylums, improveeducation, and ban slavery. Religious revivalism, resulting fromthe Second Great Awakening, also had a large impact on Americanlife in all parts of the country.

Third, the major political struggles during the antebellumperiod focused on states’ rights. Southern states were dominatedby “states’ righters”—those who believed that the individual states shouldhave the final say in matters of interpreting the Constitution. Inspiredby the old Democratic-Republicans, John C. Calhoun argued in his“South Carolina Exposition and Protest” essay that the states hadthe right to nullify laws that they deemed unconstitutional becausethe states themselves had created the Constitution. Others, suchas President Andrew Jackson and Chief Justice John Marshall, believedthat the federal government had authority over the states. The debatecame to a head in the Nullification Crisis of 1832–1833,which nearly touched off a civil war.

Fourth, and closely tied to the states’ rights issue,was the debate over slavery—the most divisive issue the nation hadyet faced. Between 1820 and 1860,more and more northerners came to realize the horrors and injusticesof slavery, while southerners grew increasingly reliant upon itto support their cotton-based economy. Northerners did not necessarilywant social and political equality for blacks; they sought merelytheir emancipation. The debate in politics centered primarily onthe westward expansion of slavery, which southern elites saw asvital to the survival of their aristocratic social and economicorder. Others vehemently opposed the expansion of slavery outsidethe South. The debate was critical in the Missouri crisis, the annexationof Texas, and after the Mexican War.

Unit 6: Antebellum America Mac

Unit 6: Antebellum America Mac's History War

Antebellum

Finally, the issue of westward expansion itself had aprofound effect on American politics and society during the antebellumyears. In the wake of the War of 1812,many nationalistic Americans believed that God intended for themto spread democracy and Protestantism across the entire continent.This idea of “manifest destiny” spurred over a million Americansto sell their homes in the East and set out on the treacherous Oregon,Mormon, Santa Fe, and California Trails. Policymakers capitalizedon public sentiment to acquire Florida and Oregon and declared waron Mexico in 1846 to seizeTexas, California, and everything in between.

Ultimately, these trends irreconcilably split the Northfrom the South. The Market Revolution, wage labor, improved transportation,social reforms, and growing middle class of the North all clashedwith the deep-seated, almost feudal social hierarchies of the South.Each successive debate on slavery and westward expansion drove theregions further apart until finally, in the 1850s,the North and the South were two wildly different places, culturally,socially, and economically.