# Thermodynamics Of Materials Pdfkeyclever

(Redirected from Material property (thermodynamics))

Clear explanation of reaction kinetics for liquids, gases, and solids Thermodynamics of Materials provides a comprehensive reference for chemical engineers and others whose work involves materials science. Volume 2 reviews macroscopic thermodynamics before moving on to the more complex behavior of defects and interfaces. The kinetics of liquids and gases are explored through discussion of. Treatment of the laws of thermodynamics and their applications to equilibrium and the properties of materials. Provides a foundation to treat general phenomena in materials science and engineering, including chemical reactions, magnetism, polarizability, and elasticity. Develops relations pertaining to multiphase equilibria as determined by a treatment of solution thermodynamics. 'Thermodynamics of Materials' introduces the basic underlying principles of thermodynamics as well as their applicability to the behavior of all classes of materials, while providing an integrated approach from macro- (or classical) thermodynamics to meso- and nanothermodynamics, and microscopic (or statistical) thermodynamics.

Thermodynamics
• Equilibrium / Non-equilibrium
State
Processes
Cycles
Process functions
Functions of state
• Temperature / Entropy (introduction)
• Pressure / Volume
• Chemical potential / Particle number
Specific heat capacity${displaystyle c=}$
 ${displaystyle T}$ ${displaystyle partial S}$ ${displaystyle N}$ ${displaystyle partial T}$
Compressibility${displaystyle beta =-}$
 ${displaystyle 1}$ ${displaystyle partial V}$ ${displaystyle V}$ ${displaystyle partial p}$
Thermal expansion${displaystyle alpha =}$
 ${displaystyle 1}$ ${displaystyle partial V}$ ${displaystyle V}$ ${displaystyle partial T}$
• Internal energy
${displaystyle U(S,V)}$
• Enthalpy
${displaystyle H(S,p)=U+pV}$
• Helmholtz free energy
${displaystyle A(T,V)=U-TS}$
• Gibbs free energy
${displaystyle G(T,p)=H-TS}$
History
Philosophy
Theories
Key publications
• 'An Experimental Enquiry
Concerning ... Heat'
• 'Reflections on the
Motive Power of Fire'
Timelines
• Art
• Education

The thermodynamic properties of materials are intensive thermodynamic parameters which are specific to a given material. Each is directly related to a second order differential of a thermodynamic potential. Examples for a simple 1-component system are:

• Compressibility (or its inverse, the bulk modulus)
• Isothermal compressibility
${displaystyle beta _{T}=-{frac {1}{V}}left({frac {partial V}{partial P}}right)_{T}quad =-{frac {1}{V}},{frac {partial ^{2}G}{partial P^{2}}}}$
${displaystyle beta _{S}=-{frac {1}{V}}left({frac {partial V}{partial P}}right)_{S}quad =-{frac {1}{V}},{frac {partial ^{2}H}{partial P^{2}}}}$
• Specific heat (Note - the extensive analog is the heat capacity)
• Specific heat at constant pressure
${displaystyle c_{P}={frac {T}{N}}left({frac {partial S}{partial T}}right)_{P}quad =-{frac {T}{N}},{frac {partial ^{2}G}{partial T^{2}}}}$
• Specific heat at constant volume
${displaystyle c_{V}={frac {T}{N}}left({frac {partial S}{partial T}}right)_{V}quad =-{frac {T}{N}},{frac {partial ^{2}A}{partial T^{2}}}}$
• Coefficient of thermal expansion
${displaystyle alpha ={frac {1}{V}}left({frac {partial V}{partial T}}right)_{P}quad ={frac {1}{V}},{frac {partial ^{2}G}{partial Ppartial T}}}$

where P is pressure, V is volume, T is temperature, S is entropy, and N is the number of particles.

For a single component system, only three second derivatives are needed in order to derive all others, and so only three material properties are needed to derive all others. For a single component system, the 'standard' three parameters are the isothermal compressibility ${displaystyle beta _{T}}$, the specific heat at constant pressure ${displaystyle c_{P}}$, and the coefficient of thermal expansion ${displaystyle alpha }$.

For example, the following equations are true:

${displaystyle c_{P}=c_{V}+{frac {TValpha ^{2}}{Nbeta _{T}}}}$
${displaystyle beta _{T}=beta _{S}+{frac {TValpha ^{2}}{Nc_{P}}}}$

The three 'standard' properties are in fact the three possible second derivatives of the Gibbs free energy with respect to temperature and pressure.

• Specific heat of melting (Enthalpy of fusion)
• Specific heat of vaporization (Enthalpy of vaporization)

• The Dortmund Data Bank is a factual data bank for thermodynamic and thermophysical data.

## References

• Callen, Herbert B. (1985). Thermodynamics and an Introduction to Thermostatistics (2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN0-471-86256-8.

Photo showing gas bubbles form and collapse when a liquid is energized by ultrasound. (Courtesy of K.S. Suslick and K. J. Kolbeck, University of Illinois; National Science Foundation.)

### Instructor(s)

Prof. W. Craig Carter

3.00

Fall 2002

### Level

 Some Description Instructor(s) Prof. As Taught In Spring 2002 Course Number 2.24 Level Undergraduate/Graduate Features Lecture Notes, Student Work

## Welcome!

This is one of over 2,400 courses on OCW. Explore materials for this course in the pages linked along the left.

### Thermodynamics Of Materials Pdf Key Clever Essay

MIT OpenCourseWare is a free & open publication of material from thousands of MIT courses, covering the entire MIT curriculum.

No enrollment or registration. Freely browse and use OCW materials at your own pace. There's no signup, and no start or end dates.

Knowledge is your reward. Use OCW to guide your own life-long learning, or to teach others. We don't offer credit or certification for using OCW.

Made for sharing. Download files for later. Send to friends and colleagues. Modify, remix, and reuse (just remember to cite OCW as the source.)

## Course Description

Treatment of the laws of thermodynamics and their applications to equilibrium and the properties of materials. Provides a foundation to treat general phenomena in materials science and engineering, including chemical reactions, magnetism, polarizability, and elasticity. Develops relations pertaining to multiphase equilibria as determined by a treatment of solution thermodynamics. Develops graphical constructions that are essential for the interpretation of phase diagrams. Treatment includes electrochemical equilibria and surface thermodynamics. Introduces aspects of statistical thermodynamics as they relate to macroscopic equilibrium phenomena.

## Course Collections

See related courses in the following collections: