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Información en españolTitle
There are 3 types of MAC infections.
- Pulmonary MAC infections - Affect the lungs and are the most common type. These mainly affect elderly women and people who already have lung disease.
- Disseminated MAC infections - Have spread throughout the body. This type is usually seen in people with advanced AIDS.
- MAC-associated lymphadenitis - Causes swelling of the
lymph nodes(especially in the neck) and is the most common in young children who have normal immune systems.
The symptoms of pulmonary MAC infection start slowly, get worse over time and may last for weeks to months. People with pulmonary MAC infections may experience
Symptoms of disseminated MAC infection include: 
- Weight loss
- Shortness of breath
- Abdominal pain
There have been a few reports of families with more than one family member with a MAC infection. In these families, it is thought that there is a variation in a
Diagnosis of disseminated MAC infection is suspected based on symptoms and is confirmed in cultures of blood and often
A diagnosis of MAC lymphadenitis is confirmed by finding the bacteria in the culture of lymph node cells. These cells are collected by a
- Pulmonary MAC infection, which affects the lungs
- Disseminated MAC infection, which affects many different parts of the body
- MAC lymphadenitis, which causes swollen
Treatment options for MAC infections vary by type of infection and by the presence of other medical conditions such as AIDS, cystic fibrosis, COPD, or
For people who have both HIV/AIDS and a MAC infection, treatment usually involves a combination of different antibiotics for the MAC infection and antiretroviral therapy to treat the HIV infection.
In special circumstances, there is some evidence to suggest that surgery to remove a single spot of infection in one lung can be helpful in people who have had a poor response to drug therapy. Surgery is usually only done when the infection is found in only one lung and the surgery won't cause any long-term harm.
Treatment of MAC lymphadenitis usually involves surgical removal of affected lymph nodes. Antibiotics may also be prescribed depending on the severity of infection and the response to surgery.
Public Lab: Camera Bench For Mac OsThe medication(s) listed below have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as orphan products for treatment of this condition. Learn more orphan products.
- Liposomal amikacin(Brand name: Arikayce) - Manufactured by Insmed Incorporated
FDA-approved indication: September 2018, liposomal amikacin (Arikayce) was approved for the treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease as part of a combination antibacterial drug regimen in patients who do not achieve negative sputum cultures after a minimum of 6 consecutive months of a multidrug background regimen therapy.
National Library of Medicine Drug Information Portal
Medline Plus Health Information
People who are HIV-positive with MAC infections may have a shortened lifespan depending on their immune systems and their response to HIV medications. For people who have had successful treatment, there is still a chance that the infection will come back, so people who have been sick from a MAC infection need to be monitored over time.
In HIV-negative people with lung disease from a MAC infection, the treatment success rates range from 20-90% in different studies. People with certain types of lung disease, people who are underweight, and people with
MAC lymphadenitis in children generally does not impact their health. In some cases, the condition may go away even without treatment.
Research helps us better understand diseases and can lead to advances in diagnosis and treatment. This section provides resources to help you learn about medical research and ways to get involved.
Clinical Research Resources
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- ClinicalTrials.gov lists trials that are related to Mycobacterium Avium Complex infections. Click on the link to go to ClinicalTrials.gov to read descriptions of these studies.
Please note: Studies listed on the ClinicalTrials.gov website are listed for informational purposes only; being listed does not reflect an endorsement by GARD or the NIH. We strongly recommend that you talk with a trusted healthcare provider before choosing to participate in any clinical study.
Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.
Organizations Supporting this Disease
- NTM Info & Research (supports pulmonary NTM infections)
550 Madruga Avenue, Suite 230
Coral Gables, FL 33146
Telephone: 305-667-6461, ext 26 and 32
E-mail: [email protected]
These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.
Where to Start
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- The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) has a report for patients and families about this condition. NORD is a patient advocacy organization for individuals with rare diseases and the organizations that serve them.
- Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
- The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
- PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Mycobacterium Avium Complex infections. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.
- The AIDS Education and Training Center (AETC) offers information on Mycobacterium Avium Complex infections. Click on the link to view this information page.
Questions sent to GARD may be posted here if the information could be helpful to others. We remove all identifying information when posting a question to protect your privacy. If you do not want your question posted, please let us know.
- Currier JS. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infections in HIV-infected patients. UpToDate. 2017; https://www.uptodate.com/contents/mycobacterium-avium-complex-mac-infections-in-hiv-infected-patients.
- Griffith DE. Overview of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in HIV-negative patients. UpToDate. 2017; https://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-infections-in-hiv-negative-patients.
- Daley CL. Mycobacterium avium Complex Disease. Microbiol Spectr. April, 2017; 5(2):https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28429679.
- Koirala J. Mycobacterium Avium-Intracellulare. Medscape Reference. 2018; http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/222664-overview.
- Disseminated mycobacterium avium complex disease. US Department of Health and Human Services. 2017; https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/guidelines/html/4/adult-and-adolescent-opportunistic-infection/326/mac.
- Diel R, Lipman M, Hoefsloot W. High mortality in patients with Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease: a systematic review. BMC Infect Dis. 2018; 18(206):1-10. https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/s12879-018-3113-x.