Classroom Management Planms. Schrader's Teaching Portfolio

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  1. Classroom Management Planms. Schrader's Teaching Portfolio Allocation
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  3. Classroom Management Planms. Schrader's Teaching Portfolios
  4. Classroom Management Planms. Schrader's Teaching Portfolio Assessment

Classroom management, it could be argued, is one of the most important skills for a teacher to possess; it involves much more than issuing discipline for undesirable behavior. It encompasses everything that goes on in a classroom, from the information and skills taught, to the relationships that are formed among the students and with the. CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT PLANS Overview Most highly effective teachers utilize classroom behavior plans. Such plans lay out the basic expectations to be in effect at all times in your classroom. These plans also indicate what students can expect from you if they choose to meet or not meet your expectations. A typical plan will include: 1. The acronym I created for our classroom rules is easily defined, however I will spend some time having a class discussion about what each letter stands for. R= Respect, for yourself, your classmates, your teachers, your parents, your school, and your community. Classroom Management Plan Classroom management is an essential tool needed to create a safe environment in which all students can learn. Through my classroom management plan I hope to create an.

Classroom Management Planms. Schrader


Is your management plan rooted in any particular educational theory, methodology or philosophy?

I am a believer in Constructivism. The more relevant you can make material for students, the easier it will be for them to make connections to the material and to be able to recall it later on. Because of this, I try to make all information as relevant to students as possible. I try to help students make connections with new material and to create their own reasons for why they believe what we are learning is important and how it can relate to their own lives. My management plan is rooted in the idea of student-centered learning, with an emphasis on project-based instruction. Both of these ideas are incorporated in the Constructivist model.

What are your beliefs on the role of the student and teacher in the learning environment?

In my opinion, students should be just as responsible for and play as large of a role in their education as the teacher does. I value the idea of student-centered learning where the focus is more on the students themselves and less on the teacher as the sole source of information – the idea of “guide on the side” vs “sage on the stage.” I also stand behind the idea of project based instruction and assessment. Although I do not believe every assignment and assessment should be project based, I think that most of them should be project based. It makes the learning more authentic and the students are responsible for learning skills and ideas, rather than simply memorizing information the instructor disseminates. The students tend to find PBI learning more engaging and more fun. During my student teaching experience, I had students fill out a survey asking them to choose how they best liked to be assessed. The options were a test, a project, an essay, or other. Out of 98 students who took the survey, 83 of them stated that they preferred a project of some sort. Some of those 83 also selected another form of assessment alongside a project because they liked being assessed in more than one way, however, the overwhelming majority of students preferred a project to anything else. This affirms my support of PBI since it is truly what the students want.

Classroom Management Planms. Schrader's Teaching Portfolio Allocation

How is respect & rapport established and maintained in your classroom?

From the get-go I will tell students that I have two main principles in my classroom – respect and acceptance. Students must always respect one another and they must accept everyone in the classroom. Students do not have to “like” everyone, but they must accept them and they must respect the other person and their viewpoints. I will emphasize that in the “real world” there will be people that you do not get along with and people that you do not see eye-to-eye with, but it does not make them a bad person and it does not mean that you should treat them differently or cruelly. I will encourage respectful talk amongst students and I will teach them how to argue and disagree respectfully in my classroom. In both of my content areas – history and French – I imagine lots of talking and discussions happening in my classroom. In French, the discussions will be in the target language and will consist of students practicing their language skills. I will let students know that I will not tolerate disrespect in the classroom. In a language classroom there must be a non-judgmental, and safe atmosphere, otherwise students will be too afraid to speak and practice their language skills. Students will not be allowed to make fun of each other or to laugh at someone else while they are attempting to speak. If students do not feel safe, they will not try, which will hinder their progress in the language. As for history, I plan to have many class discussions and seminars. I will encourage students to speak their mind and to share their opinions. They may disagree with what someone else said and that is perfectly fine; in fact, I encourage that because it makes for a more lively and engaging conversation. However, students must disagree respectfully and not make the other person feel attacked.

I will continually remind students of my expectations of respect and acceptance and I will have them posted in the room. I will also model these ideas myself by always treating my students and my colleagues with respect and acceptance. One of my favorite things about working with students is the relationships you can develop with them. I will attempt to get to know my students right away by aiming to learn something about every student within the first two weeks. If they feel comfortable around me and are willing to talk with me, then they should hopefully begin to feel more comfortable in the classroom and around each other, and will want to talk more with the other students.

What will you do to create a culture of high expectations and learning?

I want students to continually be striving to do better than they have done before and to be the best that they can be. Not every student will be able to perform at the same level, but they can all perform at a high level. I will continually encourage my students in their efforts. I will recognize efforts of students and if a student is doing poorly in my class, I will praise them for the efforts that they are making, and encourage them to do better. I will say things like “you got 12 out of 20 right on that last test. Way to get more than half of them correct! Let’s shoot for a 13 next time.” SMART goals are really important and students need to have manageable goals. If I ask a student to try to get 15 correct the next time, it may be too overwhelming for them because it is an increase of 3 points rather than just one. When I have students complete projects, I will hang them up or show them to others. When there is an added pressure of exhibition to peers, students tend to want to do better and create something that they can be proud to show off. I will rotate whose projects I highlight so that I am not continually showing the same students’ work each time. I want every student to be engaged and to be making things that they are proud of showing. If I display the work of the same students every time, other students will pick up on it and they will not be as invested in making something great.


What are the essential features to your classroom? How do you plan to arrange these features? Why?

My ideal classroom would have tables rather than chairs to foster and support group work and collaboration amongst peers. Since I want to include a fair amount of PBI learning, working at tables lends itself more easily to doing this. Students have more surface area to work on projects and they will not have to move desks around every time I want them to work with others. Additionally, I am a fan of preferential seating. My French CT used this in her classroom and I think it is a wonderful idea. She had many options for seating in her classroom; there were regular chairs at tables, there were exercise balls to sit on, bean bags and pillows, bigger chairs and cushioned chairs, and there were raised tables which were conducive to standing for students who did not want to sit. Having a variety of options allows students to be comfortable in the classroom, and it gives them more autonomy and choice in their learning. The students loved being able to switch up how and where they sat day-to-day.

Some sort of projector and computer hook up is also something that I would love to have in my classroom. Most classrooms do have these, but depending on where I teach, this may not be the case (for example, if I teach abroad). Being able to show students videos and images, and having interactive games (such as Jeopardy or Kahoot!) make learning more tangible and more entertaining for students.

Ideally, I would have the projector and whiteboard at the front of the classroom with tables and alternative seating throughout the classroom. If possible, I would love to have a reading nook and/or a couch in the back of my classroom. I want my classroom to have a safe and comfortable atmosphere to it. Simple things like this make me feel more like I am at home and less like I am in a stressful, academic environment. Students would also be able to use these features before and after school, and during lunch if they so desire. I want my room to be a safe space for students, and somewhere that they feel they can go if they have nowhere else.

What steps will you take to ensure safety at all times in your learning environment?

I will have my classroom rules posted in a central and visible place for all students to see. I will continually remind them about these rules. If I have students work with any sort of special materials, especially with anything fragile, I will make sure to go over rules of use with students before they are allowed to use these materials. I will have students repeat back rules to me before they can use these materials, to ensure that all students know exactly what they should and shouldn’t be doing.

If I have exercise balls in my classroom, I will ensure that my students know they cannot play with or bounce the balls. The balls must remain on the ground at all times, and if students abuse the privilege of having them in the room, they will be removed and unavailable for students to use.


What are 3-5 routines you will instill in your future classroom?

Classroom Management Planms. Schrader's Teaching Portfolio Login

  1. For French, my class days will always start with some sort of speaking activity at the beginning of class that relates to the subject we are currently focusing on. For example, if we are in a music unit and students have been working on formulating questions, I may have them do a pose-pose-change (ask-ask-switch) where students ask a peer a question they have written on their card (about music in this scenario), respond to the question their partner has created, then they switch question cards and find a new person to repeat the activity with. This allows students to interact with a variety of classmates while working on speaking and question skills. Since, in this instance, students will be discussing music, it will also give them an opportunity to practice their music vocabulary.
  2. In both history and French, I will make sure to include brain breaks throughout my lessons. One thing that I learned during my student teaching is that you cannot simply plow through every lesson if students are tired, distracted, or uninterested. You must gauge your students and get them up and moving every now and then to wake them up and get them engaged again. I’ve found that if there is an element of competition, or if the brain break is silly, students are usually more apt to participate.
  3. In history, I will incorporate a lot of partner work with students. One example of this is that after students are asked to read something in class, I will have them talk with peers to discuss what they perceived as main ideas and important information to know. I could conduct this as a think-pair-share activity, ask students to highlight 3 main points then discuss as a class, or ask students to decide with a partner what the “buzz words” are in the piece and have them write these words on the white board. We will almost always discuss readings together as a class to make sure that students get out of the piece(s) what I want them to. However, in order to have a discussion, students need to feel comfortable and like they understood what was happening in what they just read. Being able to first discuss and talk through ideas with a partner should help with this.

How will you ensure quick and efficient transitions between activities?

Classroom Management Planms. Schrader

I will have an overview or outline of what we are going to do each day. I will quickly review it with students at the beginning of class. They will know what the objectives and the essential question(s) are, and in which direction the class will go every day. Having this outline will let students know what will be coming up next and what to prepare for. I will also give students time remaining reminders. If they are working on a project, are reading, etc., I will give them reminders when there are 5 minutes remaining, 2 minutes remaining, etc. This will let them be better prepared to finish what they are doing and get ready to move to the next activity. Having a timer to keep track of time is helpful as well. Students will know that when the timer goes off, it means it’s time to move to the next thing.

What is your approach towards grouping of students?

I believe that students should work with a variety of people, always. I will allow them to choose their own groups (so long as this does not result in reoccurring problems) and I will also assign them groups from time to time. I know that students tend to always choose the same students to work with over and over, but I want them to have the chance to interact with a wide range of personalities and peers since, in the real world, students will have to work with many different people. For some projects I may have groups pre-assigned, and other times I may number students off or give them cards and ask them to find their partners in order to create more randomized groups.

How will you supervise/manage staff and volunteers in the classroom?

Classroom management planms. schrader

Before I have any sort of guest or staff member in my room, I will speak with them briefly (if I know ahead of time that they will be there) about what they are hoping to gain from and to accomplish in my class. I will also go over my classroom rules quickly with them so they are aware what I expect from students. If I have a reoccurring staff member in my room, such as a para, who becomes an issue (for example, talking too loudly and distracting other students during the lesson), I will address it with them personally in a kind manner. I will state my concern and hopefully be able to come to some sort of civil agreement with them. If I have a guest speaker who could potentially be controversial, I will politely ask them to try to remain as politically correct and non-offensive as possible when responding to student questions. I do not want them to water-down answers or to lie to students, but I also do not want students to feel personally attacked or upset after the guest speaker if this speaker is controversial. If I have someone in class observing me, I will acknowledge the guest presence in our class, let the students know who they are and why they are there, and then ask students to not worry about the other person in the classroom and to try and concentrate on the lesson. If I resolve the mystery of another person in the classroom, it will hopefully mitigate the distracted conversations and glances from students trying to figure out who the random person is and why they are there.


What is your general list of rules for the classroom? What is your rationale behind each rule as it pertains to the learning environment?

As I mentioned previously, I will really only have two main rules in my classroom – respect and acceptance. I believe that if students embody these two ideas, they will cover a wide range of topics that I could list out as separate rules, but do not see the need to. If a student is respectful and accepting of others, they will not say or do mean things. If a student is respectful of their environment, they will not pull malicious pranks, steal, or damage property. When students feel safe, accepted and respected in the classroom, it is easier to learn. The atmosphere does not feel stressful or judgmental.

How will you teach your rules to your students?

I will have the rules displayed in the classroom in a central and visible location so students can always see them and keep them in mind. I will blatantly discuss my rules with my students at the very beginning of the year and ask them to come up with reasons why they think these are my only two classroom rules and what the importance of them are. If the students come up with reasons and examples for why respect and acceptance are important, rather than me telling them why I think they are important, they will hopefully take them to heart and believe in them more. I will remind students of these rules periodically throughout the year, especially if students have not been as respectful or accepting as I would like them to be.


Classroom Management Planms. Schrader

What techniques will you use to reinforce positive behavior? (Consider extrinsic & intrinsic)

For the most part, I will reinforce positive behavior through verbal acknowledgement. I try to thank students who do a good job, who do what they are supposed to do, or who go above and beyond in something. I make a point to try to recognize every student for some aspect at least once a month. It may be something academic related, or it could be something nice they did for someone else. It could also be something related to behavior such as thanking a student arriving to class one minute before the bell rings when they are typically tardy to class. I think verbally recognizing and thanking students goes a long way because it not only builds relationships with students, but it also shows students that you respect them and appreciate them. When students feel valued, they are more likely to behave in a positive manner.

I like the idea of asking students to focus on intrinsic behavior as well. Taking time to establish goals with students and asking them to set a goal at the beginning of each unit then tracking their progress at the end of a unit, is an awesome idea. It not only teaches students the important skill of setting achievable and manageable goals, but it also helps establish and reinforce the importance of being motivated intrinsically in everyday life. I will ask students to set individual goals related to grades, behavior (ex: not skipping a single class all unit, only being tardy once the whole unit, etc.), or something that the students want to be able to do at the end of the unit. This is an important thing to do in any classroom, but especially in a language classroom. By the end of the year, students will be able to look back at their goals throughout the year and really be able to see how much they have grown. They can see where they started, and where they ended up – a very powerful thing for a language learner when it can feel like you have hardly learned anything all year long because there is still so much learning to do.

I am not a big fan of giving physical rewards, however, my French CT will occasionally have a raffle drawing in her classroom, and I like this idea. She gives students tickets when they are on task and doing things that they are supposed to without her having to ask, when they use the French word or phrase of the week (she changes this weekly and has it posted in the classroom), or if a student goes above and beyond. She will pull a ticket from time to time and the winning student(s) will receive some sort of prize, usually a candy bar. I like this idea because it pushes students to be on task, to do good deeds, and to try to push their French skills even further, but it doesn’t make students do these things simply to get a prize. I appreciate that it’s left up to chance, not that it is a mandatory requirement that every student gets something every time they do something good.

What is your specific progression of responses to negative behavior? (Consider early stages and chronic misbehavior)

I hope to have good rapport and relationships with my students. Establishing these relationships early on will hopefully mitigate negative behavior from occurring in the future because the students will know that I respect them and appreciate them, and hopefully they will feel the same towards me. If I have good relationships with students, an intentional look or talk when misbehavior does happen will hopefully help to curb it. During my student teaching, if I noticed a student doing something unfavorable and caught their eye, they would usually stop because they realized that I noticed and they knew they should not have been doing what they were doing. If I asked a student to stop doing something, they would typically respond in a favorable manner because I approached them in a friendly, non-aggressive and non-accusatory manner. Giving students respect and not getting upset when they misbehave goes a long way.

That being said, if a student misbehaves in a grander manner and/or does not stop their behavior after I talk to them, I will address them more sternly, let them know I am not afraid to assign them detention, or even recommend them to the office and include additional staff support if necessary. If a student repeatedly acts in an unfavorable manner and does not react positively to any of my attempts to dissuade this behavior, I will approach a colleague and ask them for suggestions and ideas to help the situation. I will go to my superiors as a last-resort, but I would prefer to not have to engage administrators if it is not absolutely necessary.

I have created this plan for a K-2 gradeSpecial Education classroom.

ThePsychosocial dimension of classroom management is the dimension that focuses onthe classroom atmosphere in which the students must learn. I believe that inorder for students to receive the best education possible they must be in apositive and nurturing environment. I plan to create this type of environmentin my classroom by making it a place of discovery and wonder. Students shouldnever be embarrassed to get answers wrong or to feel bad if they don’tunderstand something. I will encourage them to do their best and will show themthat as long as they try their hardest, I will be there to help and support them.It’s essential to teach students that we all are entitled to our own values andbeliefs and in my room I expect everyone to treat each other with respect.

My belief is that in order for students tofeel comfortable in a classroom they will need to feel at ease and accepted bythe teacher and other students. To accomplish good relationships with mystudents I will do my best to be calm, kind, rational, attentive and I willlisten to what they have to say no matter what. I will encourage respect andindividuality and stress the importance of each child’s contribution. I want mystudents to know that I care about them, so I will greet them individually everyday and ask them how they are doing. Tocreate a sense of unity I will allow five to ten minutes every morning for eachstudent to share exciting things with the class.

Ialso believe that it is imperative to include all parents in their child’slearning experience. In order to accomplish this goal you need to have a goodrelationship with the parents and I plan to achieve this by getting them asinvolved as much as I can. I will ask for parent volunteers to work in the roomwhen they are available and I will send home progress reports every week sothat each parent will know how their child is succeeding in class.

TheProcedural dimension of classroom management is the dimension that focuses onthe rules and procedures that will be expected in the classroom. I believe thatstudents need clear and simple rules and procedures to follow so that myclassroom can run efficiently. I plan to have three main rules, Be Responsible,Be Respectful and Be Resourceful. I would like to have a discussion with theclass to brainstorm other rules they think would be helpful to have in ourclassroom as well. When it comes to procedures I plan to teach the proceduresto my class the very first day, but I will also remind them when they need someextra assistance.

1.Unpackbackpacks and hang up backpacks and coats at the designated location

2.Placeindividual lunch stick in the hot or cold lunch basket

3.Havestudents place homework on desk and sit quietly until I begin class

1.Writedown homework assignments in agenda

2.Lookaround desk and clean up any paper, pencils, wrappers etc
3.Onceteacher has given permission, grab backpack and coat and bring back to desk

4.Packup all homework and agenda, put on coat, gloves hat etc

5.Upondirection of the teacher, students will quietly line up at the front door to beexcused for the day

1.Teachersays: “One, Two, Three eyes on me (teacher will count on fingers and point tohis/her eyes)

2.Studentswill say “One, Two Three eyes on you (students will do movements and at the endwill be focused on the teacher).

In order to teach theAttention Procedure to my class I plan to do what I will for any procedure andthat is model it for my students. I will begin singing One, Two, Three eyes onme and then will teach them their verse of One, Two, Three eyes on you. Oncethey have learned their part I will teach them the movements to go along withit, we will then put the whole procedure together and practice it until thestudents feel comfortable.

ThePhysical dimension of classroom management is the dimension that focuses on thephysical aspects of the classroom and how the arrangement of the room willaffect the students learning. In my classroom I would like to have my desk in theback of the classroom facing the class and the front door, this way I can notonly keep an eye on my class but I can also see people coming and going from myroom; though I don’t plan on spending much time at my desk. I like to be up and moving throughout the room.This is so I can keep a close eye on my kids and make them feel that I’m an active participantin the class. I would like to have tables dispersed throughout my room insteadof desks. I like tables because I can place students at different academic levelsat certain tables, and they also provide the Para-educators and me a place totake students to work one on one without being interrupted. It also allows and encourages interactionbetween the children when allowed. I feel the use of tables will provide moreroom in my classroom so that children in wheelchairs can maneuver easily. Theyalso allow students with visual and hearing impairments to be close to theirteacher and close to the project/lesson that is being discussed. I plan to havea colorful room with art displayed on the walls. I feel this creates a fun andrelaxed atmosphere that I’m sure the students will love. I also would likecertain technologies to be available in my room. I love using Smart Boardsbecause they are a great way to add visual elements to a lesson. Smart Boardscan also be used as a classroom timer, this is a great way to keep students ontrack and show them how much time they have to complete certain assignments.

Behavioraldimension is the dimension that focuses on the ability to manage inappropriatebehaviors in the classroom. I feel that behavior issues are something that canbe limited if you have clear set rules set out for the students at thebeginning of the year. I have three rules that I will have listed on the boardfor my students. 1) Be Respectful, 2) Be Responsible, and 3) Be Resourceful.These rules are simple and to the point and I feel that students will be ableto remember them easily. For rules to be truly effective I feel that studentsshould be able to help create some for their classroom. I plan to hold adiscussion with my class and allow them to create some of their own rules thatwe can use for the classroom. No matter how clear your rules may be everyteacher will have behavior problems they must deal with. The important thing isto be prepared ahead of time and to have a system set up to deal with theseproblems.

Sayyou have a student who yells out the answers instead of raising their hand. Inmy classroom I will politely ignore the student and call on someone who israising their hand and thank them for following the rules and gently remind theclass that we must raise our hands when we answer a question. Then I would asksome more questions to allow the student the time to correct their behavior.I’m a believer that embarrassing students by singling them out is not aneffective way to deal with problem behaviors. Another example could be that youhave a student who is having a bad day, and is refusing to complete theirassignments and is creating a distraction in the room. I will take the studentsomewhere in the room where we could talk one on one and try to figure out whatis going on to make them so upset. I would then say I’m sorry you are having arough day but let’s try to make the rest of it better. I would then encouragethem to do their best and sit with them while they worked on their assignment.There are times when students will persist with the problem behavior. This iswhen I feel it’s necessary to use some form of consequence whether it’s loss ofrecess or talking with parents to try and resolve the issue.

Classroom Management Planms. Schrader's Teaching Portfolios

TheInstructional dimension in classroom management is the dimension that focuseson scheduling, transitions, lesson planning. For a classroom to run efficientlyI believe that a teacher must create a classroom that uses a mixture ofdemocratic, direct instruction and student centered learning philosophies. Aclassroom needs to be a place where students feel that they are important, arebeing listened to and that they have a say. I want my students to feelcomfortable asking me for assistance and I want to be a good role model forthem.

Classroom Management Planms. Schrader's Teaching Portfolio Assessment

Ibelieve that students benefit from learning from their peers and should havethe opportunity to work with one another to discover answers for themselves. Weall know that everyone learns in their own time and in their own way. It’s myjob as a teacher to provide information in multiple ways so that each of mystudents can understand the lesson they are being taught. I plan to use WhiteBoards, Smart Boards, computers, discussions etc to present my lessons to theclass. Students will also have the opportunity to engage in lessons in multipleways, for example I will ask the students to build, draw, measure and create toget them to use their imagination and to develop a better understanding of thelesson. I also want several ways for my students to express the information theyhave learned. I will ask them to present projects to the class, write shortpapers, to create a skit, or to do a drawing to show me they understand thematerial.

TheOrganizational dimension is the dimension of classroom management that focuses ona teacher’s ability to manage their time in order to be successful in theirclass. Being organized is a key component to being a successful teacher,because when the teacher isn’t organized the students aren’t organized. Thefirst step in becoming organized is to have an effective filing system. I liketo use filing cabinets and labeled folders to keep track of my student’s progress.This system of filing is quick and easy to use, and it provides a neat andorderly way to keep track of important information. I feel that another big partof being organized is staying on top of my work. I plan to work on gradingpapers every night so that I won’t be overwhelmed and I will be able to returnwork/tests to my students as soon as possible.

Irecognize that in order to be the best teacher I can be I will need help andsupport from my co -workers. I want to establish good relationships with myfellow teachers and principal as it will make for a more pleasant workenvironment and they will be some of my best resources for information, problemsolving and new ideas. Seeing as I hope to teach Special Education I know thatI will be working side by side with incredible Para Educators and I want themto feel that they are an important component to my classroom so I will have weeklymeetings with them to discuss questions, concerns, and behavior issues. I feelthis communication will help to create a strong and effective team in myclassroom.

Asteachers we will be faced with behaviors that will be challenging to manage inour classrooms. What many fail to realize is that sometimes problem behaviorscan be caused by a student’s frustration or boredom with the material they areexpected to know. Luckily there are multiple tools that we have available to usthat can help us measure where are students are intellectually and can helpprevent problem behaviors before they occur.

Thefirst tool is Response to Intervention (RTI). RTI is a three tier model thatwith the use of ongoing measurement shows students progress. This givesteachers the tools to determine which students are responding to the curriculumand which ones would benefit from additional assistance. Curriculum BasedMeasurement is a useful method for tracking a student’s progress in reading,writing, spelling and math. The teacher gives the student brief, timed samples whichthe teacher then scores them. BecauseCBM is quick to administer and simple to score, they can be given repeatedly.Positive Behavior Supports (PBS) is a systems level problem solving orientedand data based approach to reducing problem behavior. Teachers use this byencouraging students to set aside their problem behavior and replace it withappropriate behavior enabling them to benefit from the general curriculum. Thissystem allows us as teachers to tailor the student’s environments to theirstrengths and needs to prevent problem behavior from occurring in the firstplace. With the use of Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) a teacher canlook beyond the student’s behavior and identify the social, cognitive or environmentalfactors that are associated with the behavior. This offers us as the teacher abetter understanding of why a student is behaving the way they are. Thusallowing us the information we need to help students overcome these factors andto behave appropriately in the classroom.

Feldman, A. (n.d.). Sampleclassroom management plan. Retrieved from

IRISCenter for Faculty Enhancement (2009, February 10). Implementing cbm in theclassroom. Retrieved from

Smith, T. E. C., Polloway, E. A.,Patton, J. R., & Dowdy, C. A. (2004). Teaching students with specialneeds in inclusive settings. (4 ed.). Pearson College. Retrieved from

Turnbull, A., Turnbull, R., &Wehmeyer, M. L. (2010). Exceptional lives: Special education in today’sschools. (6 ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.